4x4 Build Ep.9 - Tube Frame, Engine Install

  Vaatamised 151,081

Donn DIY

27 päeva tagasi

Latest video: eepost.info/my/video/o2-LdnVnopKFuos.html
Continuing the fabrication of the steel tube frame of this homemade off road 4x4 utility terrain vehicle (a.k.a. UTV). This is not a SxS (side by side) as you will find out in this video. Why? I like to keep it really small and nimble but very capable at the same time. Thus the small width and length of the vehicle. It will not be a fast vehicle (it's not for racing that's for sure) and it has to fit on the trailer I have (1.5 m / ~5 feet wide) that I can tow around behind my work van.
This is part of a series of a four wheel drive utility vehicle build to lessen the work load on my trusty 2002 Honda Foreman Rubicon TRX500FA. This partially answers the question "Why?" but for those who want to ask "why don't you just buy a side-by-side instead of building one?" I just want to say - I'm not made of money. Side-by-sides are ridiculously expensive, even the car I drive around daily is worth less (not worthless though!), hell, it is even worth less than my 2002 Honda ATV.
"How much HP will it have?" - the 1.4 litre FWD petrol engine I'm planning on using has 55 kw and this will not change, but the torque will be tripled via the BMW differentials I'm using to transfer power to front and rear axles.
"It will be too heavy!" - this project just like the firewood processor project does not have to float. And a heavier vehicle will handle better anyway when hauling heavy loads.
Stay tuned for future episodes! Thanks for watching!
My other videos: eepost.info
#donndiy #homemade #4x4
Soundtrack:
Pomade - Silent Partner (EEpost Audio Library)
Welding equipment borrowed from Spetselektroodi AS, Estonia:
Fronius TransSteel 2700 welder
Optrel Crystal 2.0 Welding Helmet
Hypertherm Powermax 45 XP plasma cutter

Kommentaarid
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 26 päeva tagasi
Want more fabrication videos? There are plenty on eepost.infovideos
Valtra103
Valtra103 23 päeva tagasi
You should talk more in videos. Your english is good, and will get even better. And all that text in video takes time when you edit. Dont be shy, just talk.
Eric Houser
Eric Houser 26 päeva tagasi
Looks awesome brother keep building how you see fit, look at everything you built in the past no one and I mean no one should question you on this awesome build. Your friend from Larned kansas Eric Houser.
Dennis Harp
Dennis Harp 26 päeva tagasi
Hey Donnie thanks for sharing all your videos and all your hard work I'm a fabricator myself and I still enjoy watching you do your thing. And you do what I do that's what I call recycling!
D L
D L 26 päeva tagasi
I see only one issue the drivers on da wrong side... Just joking
Maciej Skawiński
Maciej Skawiński 26 päeva tagasi
@Donn DIY, why You want to block and weld diff? You will still have evenly distributed moment while driving, more less. Maybe it's better to install front and rear brakes separately? Something like disc brake on each differential?
Brian's Contracting
Brian's Contracting 10 päeva tagasi
Finally! Someone who actually does things right... hole punch, pilot drill, remove burrs, level, etc. And wears proper safety gear. Liked and subbed.
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 9 päeva tagasi
Thanks for watching and subscribing! 💪
Valirok
Valirok 12 päeva tagasi
Надеюсь поплывёт. I hope it floats.
Bye Boer
Bye Boer 16 päeva tagasi
Where is your new video?
Bye Boer
Bye Boer 15 päeva tagasi
@Donn DIY can't wait for it.😁
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 15 päeva tagasi
Working on it! 😉😁
Hip Airbrush
Hip Airbrush 16 päeva tagasi
Why not put the radiator on top blowing down? Why do you never clean off rust before you build?
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 15 päeva tagasi
I'm lazy, that's why. 😁 And it's alot of work.
Gozz
Gozz 17 päeva tagasi
Try to find a daewoo/ chevrolet matiz/spark steering rack. It is made of steel not aluminum (the outer housing) and it is easily weldable and easily shortened.
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 15 päeva tagasi
Cheers man!
Rahmad
Rahmad 18 päeva tagasi
Mantap joss👍👍👍👍👍
Wanderer
Wanderer 20 päeva tagasi
Did you have a Education as a mechanic or Metal worker ?
Skip Bolinger
Skip Bolinger 19 päeva tagasi
I would also like to know he seems very educated in many things
Quarlow 12
Quarlow 12 20 päeva tagasi
Just my opinion which doesn't count for anything but that one seater with a lot of sitting beside you is kind of odd. Seems like a lot of build for one seat.
Ornothopter
Ornothopter 21 päev tagasi
have you consider 4 wheel steering , cantilever push pull . mount rack'n'pinion length wise
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 18 päeva tagasi
Yes. 👍
Derrin Eckelmann
Derrin Eckelmann 22 päeva tagasi
Thats very interesting how you mounted the motor,will it offset the balance left and right ? I dont know if your body weight will be enough to counter the engine weight especially through turns 🤔 just food for thought
BarnStangz
BarnStangz 22 päeva tagasi
Donn, looks mint man, love the build! But... Where is the old lady going to sit? Surely you want to take her along on your adventures yeah?
Norm Howes
Norm Howes 18 päeva tagasi
I'm liking it's a one seater. Who needs a back seat driver sitting next to you?
Charles Rickard
Charles Rickard 23 päeva tagasi
I’d laugh so hard if someone commented “why is he wearing a mask there’s no one around?”
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
😂
Jevgeni Harlamov
Jevgeni Harlamov 23 päeva tagasi
Hi Se on JevgeHa, Narva Kas vene keeles rääkid? Mina halvasti räägin Eesti keeles. Helistan sulle kui rääkid? Mul on pakkumine tööristmete järgi. Mul on töörist, mis Saab keevipaska lebo puhastada.
Сергей Васильев
Сергей Васильев 23 päeva tagasi
Скоро будет испытывать. Ждём. Удачи.
R M S
R M S 23 päeva tagasi
Bah, não gostei da posição do motor achava q seria para duas pessoas.
Anderson Rodrigues
Anderson Rodrigues 23 päeva tagasi
Very Nice!
Eren Kocbey
Eren Kocbey 23 päeva tagasi
Perfect and funny job, Probably he is gonna change that strut mounts later :)
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
Yes, I'm not gonna leave the strut mounta like that. 😁
michael lautner
michael lautner 23 päeva tagasi
just a thought, not sure how well it would work with such limited space, but maybe it would work to use the rack and pinion in a setup similar to an older style steering box setup. just using the rack and pinion in place of the steering box. again, not sure how if at all that could work with such limited space. another idea, if you want power steering with the side by side steering racks suggested by mike festiva, is that the power steering modules out of a toyota prius are cheap and plentiful on ebay and relatively easy to incorporate being electric modules that are in the steering shaft
OzBullGaming
OzBullGaming 23 päeva tagasi
-dumb place for the motor
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
Dumb comment.
Ardi Ilves
Ardi Ilves 24 päeva tagasi
Roolisüsteemina mingit sarnast lahendust nagu talasildadel kasutatakse kannataks teha? Võimuga roolikarp ja sealt edasi juba rooliotsad plus kustom vahetükid?
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
Ikka kannatab. Võimalusi on palju, kõige raskem ongi otsuse vastu võtmine. 😁
mechniack
mechniack 24 päeva tagasi
Disappointed you took the easy way out with the engine placement. I thought I was to be a side by side, and the engine would be either in the front or the back, drive could easily be overcome with some 90 and 180 deg gears. 🤔
mechniack
mechniack 17 päeva tagasi
Now thinking about it, your new atv will be a lousy tractor as it no high, low gears, has no did lock of any kind. I do realize it will lover geared than the original renault, but still.
mechniack
mechniack 18 päeva tagasi
You got several Tractors ? Already 😀
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
It will be more a tractor than a sporty side-by-side. Thus the engine placement.
HC 66
HC 66 24 päeva tagasi
Where do Come from the coils Spring ?
HC 66
HC 66 22 päeva tagasi
@Donn DIY thanks its for my homemade buggy !
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
Coil springs are from Volkswagen Golf 1 rear axle.
Thomas D Harrell
Thomas D Harrell 24 päeva tagasi
Hi Donn, You are doing great!!! Fast too! It’s going to be cool! I would like to ask a question. Why do you put the engine in side passenger seat????? Why not design it to be front engine or rear engine??? Thanks Tom
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
Keeping the dimensions of the vehicle as small as possible to be able to drive around the forest without having to clear a path as I do on my quadbike at the moment.
Michael Kiel
Michael Kiel 24 päeva tagasi
Could you do hydraulic steering like a tractors 2 way ram setup?
Donn DIY
Donn DIY 22 päeva tagasi
I could.
Bob Casey
Bob Casey 24 päeva tagasi
Wouldn't the radiator get more air if it was in front? Plus motor in front or Back to keep the drive train straight?? Patiently watching...Anxious to see the outcome of this Build...
Robert Borewik
Robert Borewik 24 päeva tagasi
What about weight distribution? Will you add weight to the driver side? How?
Rob Mosher
Rob Mosher 24 päeva tagasi
Welding flash is not entertaining but it could be a liability.
Fedor Dostoewskij
Fedor Dostoewskij 24 päeva tagasi
Дружище все у тебя красиво и почти по уму. Почему почти? Потому что силовые арки по бокам стоило бы согнуть из цельной трубы в целях безопасности. Любой кувырок и один из профилей вполне вероятно проткнет водителя или пасажира.это мнение сварщика 5го разряда в прошлом. А в остальном все 👍
รถทําเอง รถสร้าง DIY
รถทําเอง รถสร้าง DIY 24 päeva tagasi
🤘🤘🤘🤘 fc thailand
Douglas Thompson
Douglas Thompson 24 päeva tagasi
I have said it before and I will say it again. You would get more viewers if you narrated your builds. I know you can because you have done a very good job of it in the past. Makes watching much more enjoyable as well as giving a window into why you chose different options over others. Great topics and I love the use what you got method but no narration really detracts so I tend to spend my time on other DIY channels that do. Sorry to say I don't watch them all anymore for that reason.
kampretciet ciet
kampretciet ciet 24 päeva tagasi
Bad design, with big engine,only have one seat, engine beside driver, fail design
sjaak van engelen
sjaak van engelen 24 päeva tagasi
the front end diferential is running backwards
Miguel Quiñones
Miguel Quiñones 24 päeva tagasi
que tipo de tubos usas? 40x40x2 mm???
David McDuffie
David McDuffie 25 päeva tagasi
Looking good !
S/V Sugar Magnolia
S/V Sugar Magnolia 25 päeva tagasi
Yes sir you are correct about the axles. If you turn them upside down they turn the axles backwards.
Klaus P
Klaus P 25 päeva tagasi
I just love all your projects ;-)
Edward Weisenburg
Edward Weisenburg 25 päeva tagasi
I love the shop sounds . No dorky youtube musak
Jay Mann
Jay Mann 25 päeva tagasi
Very nice indeed mate.
Dion Betts
Dion Betts 25 päeva tagasi
I don’t know where I was expecting the engine to go... but it wasn’t there. I’m a little disappointed it’s not a two seater. Awesome build though!!
Roberto Zalazar
Roberto Zalazar 25 päeva tagasi
Exelente..
Mike festiva
Mike festiva 25 päeva tagasi
Nice Work Donn! It’s coming along nicely 👍 If you cannot get the steering rack worked out, check out Side by Side steering racks on Amazon or EBay, they are narrow and sell for under $100. The down side is they are not power assist. Ps I don’t know how you find the time to write back to people, I find myself overwhelmed from comments, I love to try and write back to everyone but it’s like getting 400 random texts in one day! I just cannot do it!?
Mike festiva
Mike festiva 24 päeva tagasi
@N1RKW Right on 👍 That would be cool! Yes we both build out of necessity and work with what we have on hand. Take care 🙂
N1RKW
N1RKW 25 päeva tagasi
I would love to see a collaboration between Mike Festiva and Donn! You guys both seem to be on similar wavelengths when it comes to building power equipment to help with work on your properties.
Military Museum
Military Museum 25 päeva tagasi
I can’t wait till the first ride!
KR Bassin
KR Bassin 25 päeva tagasi
How big is the square tubing
yeah right
yeah right 25 päeva tagasi
Wow you speak not often that you actually speak your English is much better than I thought keep up the good work🤗🙂👍
Job38 Four
Job38 Four 25 päeva tagasi
Oh no a one seater, I wanted a two seater therefore I'm withdrawing my down payment......
Suji Anto
Suji Anto 25 päeva tagasi
Senang nonton video ini. Cerdas dan kreatif
Алексей Л
Алексей Л 25 päeva tagasi
Весьма странная компоновка...
prancstaman
prancstaman 25 päeva tagasi
Now that's a big motor for that, LOL.
Вадим Ржевский
Вадим Ржевский 25 päeva tagasi
Инженер!
Farmer 2003
Farmer 2003 25 päeva tagasi
I have never see anyone on youtube use the word knackered before
ATH3157
ATH3157 25 päeva tagasi
Hi, I'm new to your channel but I've just noticed that the front diff should be mounted upside down. I perhaps have missed the same comment on the posts, if so disregard. Excellent build and hello from Portugal.
Amzel Sam
Amzel Sam 25 päeva tagasi
Hi... Donn. I enjoyed your video w original background crick crock sound w/o any music which most people don't do it. 👍... Once ready export to Singapore. I'll buy from you..... 😆😆.. I like home made vehicle.
Jerry Hammack
Jerry Hammack 25 päeva tagasi
You build it for your needs and budget. With the available materials. Great work , As for the rest of us. We will watch and learn. It's easy to critique and harder to do this on your own. With a limited amount of money. Great work ,I'm glad you took the time to show us. Thank you. God bless you.
Юрий Емец
Юрий Емец 25 päeva tagasi
Делал аналогичную конструкцию с такой компоновкой, только на базе силового агрегата Рено. Рулевую рейку просто использовать от праворульного автомобиля
Joshua Dunn
Joshua Dunn 25 päeva tagasi
@16.00 you mentioned about the rack being too long compared to the distance between the 2 control arms. I was thinking could you draw an imagery line between the control arm mounts up to the centre of top of the struts and mount the steering rack at a height that the 2 ball joints of the rack intersect that imaginery line, thus eliminating bump steer. Am I right in thinking that? Also mounting the rack higher might give a bit more space for peddles. The only problem I see is that you would have to attach the outboard ball joints to the hub and at a height that the track rod ends are parallel with the control arms, which might case a huge pain in the arse. Also I was thinking about you mounting the engine - now this mightn't work because of the drive shafts and gear selector and all that but could you build it into at cage/subframe that you just bolt onto the frame rails after. It might make life easier......or......I could make it much more difficult. I don't know. Just a thought. Anyway.....great vid as always. Keep up the great work. Your inspiring. Oh and what camera do you use?
Dr. Mark in Texas
Dr. Mark in Texas 25 päeva tagasi
🏆🏆🏆💪🇺🇲🇨🇱 Thank you for sharing
Николай Безрудченко
Николай Безрудченко 25 päeva tagasi
Смотрю этот канал с большим удовольствием. У этого парня золотые руки!
Leonardo Chiruzzi
Leonardo Chiruzzi 25 päeva tagasi
Il tuo passeggero sarà il motore?!?!? will your passenger be the engine?
CurlyG65
CurlyG65 25 päeva tagasi
The Donnota Landcruiser.
ybz3300
ybz3300 25 päeva tagasi
Your backdifferential is not spinning forwards , it's spinning backwards, that's what i see in the video
Mikko Lehtinen
Mikko Lehtinen 25 päeva tagasi
Maybe do somekind clucts lock in center differential? Turns beter if center differential is open i think?
Barry Coleman
Barry Coleman 25 päeva tagasi
really motoring now terrific stuff
Hannes Saariste
Hannes Saariste 25 päeva tagasi
Just wondering, why choose this 1,4l gasoline engine over lets say vw 1.9l tdi 55kw engine? Or that was just something you had lying around? That 1.9 is IDI engine and also cool addition would be running this on WVO or hydraulic oils. Had my 1.9 66kw one running on hydraulic oil for over 10k km. But those injectors get clogged fast. 55IDI wont have that problem.
Rait Mets
Rait Mets 25 päeva tagasi
Väga lahe pane edasi
Morgan Adair
Morgan Adair 25 päeva tagasi
You haven't let me down yet. I think each build that you do gets a bit more intense. I remember the sawmill build and thought wow, he is going to head to one of those large companies that hire people to think outside the box and that will be that, no more Donn and that would make me sad. I hope that this is the very thing that takes you to over a million subscribers.... that kind of thing can't hurt the pocket book and just maybe the next stove project will keep the snow out of the back yard.... oops, been done, called a forest fire so forget than idea/LOL
علي الشيخ
علي الشيخ 25 päeva tagasi
Thanks 🤩😍🤩 عمل رائع شكرا لك اخي
Olivier Wellink
Olivier Wellink 25 päeva tagasi
4:37 search the smiley
Злой Дядька
Злой Дядька 25 päeva tagasi
как то не правильно двигатель располагается . да и слишком большои он для этой повозки.
Matej Šoky
Matej Šoky 25 päeva tagasi
It almost looks like you could fit the engine to the front
Василий Грамотенко
Василий Грамотенко 25 päeva tagasi
Думал рядом жена будет сидеть, в он туда двигатель посадил...
Honeycutt Racing
Honeycutt Racing 25 päeva tagasi
Nice
Ferdi Dede
Ferdi Dede 25 päeva tagasi
.
Deven Belanger
Deven Belanger 25 päeva tagasi
***If there is ever one comment I want a creator to see it’s this one*** PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE do a video when you weld the transmission gears PLEASE 🙏
просто пилот
просто пилот 25 päeva tagasi
Как всегда аккуратно и красиво)Молодец!Но у меня (я не спец) один вопрос.Не слабовато ли верхнее крепление стоек из кусочков металла?Или будет усиление позже?
Kyle Beck
Kyle Beck 25 päeva tagasi
That thing looks sweet!
Nazrul Naz
Nazrul Naz 25 päeva tagasi
Engine on th side, how about stability? Isn't it biased?
Hellsong89
Hellsong89 25 päeva tagasi
Peugeot engine and trans is around 200 kg?. His probably 80kg+seat is 25kg+battery 20kg+steering wheel and other instruments maybe 15kg?+Fuel tank under and behind the driver could be anything from 25 to 75kg, but its chancing ballast due use of fuel, so if kept topped off its around same weight to engine, but it could be 60kg biased on engine side with empty fuel tank, exhaust system, radiator with its cooling etc on the engine side. Even if you get it balanced, all that start to weight it down. Sure its 4x4 and small size, but how about weight with those components. I start to think car engine was bit of a mistake in this case.
Scarface 39
Scarface 39 25 päeva tagasi
Looking pretty good 👍
Big Bill at Iron Garage
Big Bill at Iron Garage 25 päeva tagasi
Single seater very cool build. Thanks for sharing.👍
thedge7
thedge7 25 päeva tagasi
Driving from the wrong side?
loren golliher
loren golliher 25 päeva tagasi
That thing is going to be insane love your videos keep up the good work
WITO SARLAW
WITO SARLAW 25 päeva tagasi
Mantap bang..🙏😊
maniaks kis
maniaks kis 25 päeva tagasi
Самое глупое место для двигателя. Лучше педали приделать как на велосипеде.
Fergus B
Fergus B 25 päeva tagasi
"knackered"! How British!😀
Степан Холтура
Степан Холтура 25 päeva tagasi
Зачем ставить двигатель по середине с боку???? Это же не удобно, шумно, обжечься можнл
OLD DAWG DREAMING
OLD DAWG DREAMING 25 päeva tagasi
Great job Donn, looking good. 👍👍👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻 Thanks for sharing with us.
александр павлишин
александр павлишин 25 päeva tagasi
сделай субтитры на русском а то не понятно что говоришь
David MacLean
David MacLean 25 päeva tagasi
My overbuilding brain keeps wanting you to add an X brace behind the seat, to reduce sideways flex in all the rectangles. Or is it plenty stiff enough?
Ed May
Ed May 25 päeva tagasi
Heat shielding from the heat coming off the engine? Another fine piece of work.
Станислав Гладков
Станислав Гладков 25 päeva tagasi
👍 👍 👍
Ray Nyhus
Ray Nyhus 25 päeva tagasi
That'll have some rock crawling gearing when your done.
Roger Rarebit
Roger Rarebit 26 päeva tagasi
Knackered is such a useful descriptive word, says it all really.
supersport1986
supersport1986 26 päeva tagasi
I had wanted to build something basically just like this a while back I'm from Ohio and I was going to use a chevy cobalt 4 cylinder and the manual transmission and I had thought a set of ford escape rear differentials but it's all just been ideas and a few drawings so seeing this is awsome I cant wait to see how this works it is looking great so far you are doing a fantastic job
jane blogs
jane blogs 26 päeva tagasi
15:00 no no donn. It turns the correct way, but the large ring gear is now contacting on the opposite side of the bevel tooth. Not as much tooth surface area I'm sure it will be fine at your speed and power. But some diffs would whine, backlash out the window, 1.5 diff's would work opposite.
Clyde Balcom
Clyde Balcom 26 päeva tagasi
Looks like a badass little rock crawler. It's definitely a beast. You are going to have Fun!
TheUgly82
TheUgly82 26 päeva tagasi
Развесовка гавно.
matthew postlewait
matthew postlewait 26 päeva tagasi
Definitely thought it was going to be a two seater... Ive been thinking about a similar build but using a turbo charged chevy colbolt engine and transmission... Going to jeep danas (shortened of course) then the front would go to a smaller transfer case so the front axles can be put in neutral.... Going to be about the size of a 4door rzr but only 2 seats
Путь Жизни Металлиста
Путь Жизни Металлиста 26 päeva tagasi
Классный баги получаеться , всегда жду продолжение и завершение проекта , плюс испытательные катания ! 👍🚜
Steve 1961P.
Steve 1961P. 26 päeva tagasi
I think I understand what your goal is, but this is going to be one insanely fast cart for off-road!! You could do an air cooled 4 stroke small engine and use a divorced transfer case from a 4 wheel drive and that would give you plenty of room in your small area and far less trouble to deal with on the trails. The only issue would be a transmission. Maybe something in the way of a tractor transmission would be good.. I have seen another buggy built somewhat like yours and it was horribly over powered for trails..
Clase B
Clase B 26 päeva tagasi
I'm wondering if the planet gears in the peugeot differential should be welded together. Great job!
Joshua Dunn
Joshua Dunn 25 päeva tagasi
I reckon he should leave them open for a while and see how it goes and he can always do it after.
Hellsong89
Hellsong89 25 päeva tagasi
He already said he will be doing that in this video no less :D
4x4 Build Ep.10 - Steering Rack & Other
20:28
Donn DIY
Vaatamised 125 tuh
4x4 Build Ep.11 - Tube Frame, LED Lights
19:33
Crew-1 Mission | Launch
4:33:15
SpaceX
Vaatamised 5 mln
LIVE: Chaos vs. Triumph - IEM Beijing 2020 - Grand-Final - NA
11:47:21
Homemade Lathe Machine
25:31
Lets Learn Something
Vaatamised 16 mln
Homemade Off-Road Car Project - Full Video
35:28
CHERAL AUTO
Vaatamised 2,6 mln
Widening Steel Rims - 4x4 Build Ep.3
20:53
Donn DIY
Vaatamised 1,8 mln
CBR 1000rr Off Road Buggy Part 10
15:26
rather B welding
Vaatamised 169 tuh
Crew-1 Mission | Launch
4:33:15
SpaceX
Vaatamised 5 mln
LIVE: Chaos vs. Triumph - IEM Beijing 2020 - Grand-Final - NA
11:47:21
The Self-Healing Smartphones!
10:39
Mrwhosetheboss
Vaatamised 2,1 mln
Apple M1 Mac Review: Time to Recalibrate!
14:31
Marques Brownlee
Vaatamised 5 mln
Unboxing EVERY iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro
27:07
Unbox Therapy
Vaatamised 4,8 mln
ПЕРВЫЙ ВЛОГ МОЕЙ ДЕВУШКИ!
16:00
Эдисон Перец
Vaatamised 2,2 mln
3080 with a flip up screen?
7:46
Linus Tech Tips
Vaatamised 1,2 mln